usually happens early in the writing process. The writer sends a first draft to an editor to see if the piece flows and makes sense. I will make recommendations for improvement in structure, clarity, accuracy, tone and voice, and style. Grammar and spelling are important, but of lesser concern at this stage. I will make notes, usually in the form of suggestions, to the writer or client for approval.
Line Editing/Copy Editing
Copy editing is performed when the copy is fairly set and is more focused on grammar, spelling, punctuation, and syntax. Often, I will make minor revisions or suggestions to improve sentence structure and the flow of the writing. Any major revisions will be made by suggestion to be approved by the writer or client. A copy editor usually works from a provided company style guide or an agreed-upon dictionary/style manual, such as Webster's Collegiate Dictionary or the Chicago Manual of Style.
The final stage of a project, proofreading happens when the copy has been approved and the client needs to ensure that no errors remain. A proofreader looks for typos, misspellings, punctuation errors, and style inconsistencies, such as a title with a lower case initial letter or a missing trademark symbol in the company name. A proofreader uses the same approved style references as a copy editor. At this stage, I will make no comments about the content of the copy, unless I see something egregious. In such a case, I will make a note for the client.